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We notice that out of this extensive word field cheap tizanidine 2 mg without prescription spasms thoracic spine, only one term has survived into Modern English in the copulatory sense 2mg tizanidine mastercard spasms in your back. Most of the recorded instances of swive are scurrilous: John Fletcher’s translation of a passage of Martial cheap tizanidine 2mg with mastercard muscle relaxant erectile dysfunction, published in 1656 2 mg tizanidine with amex spasms under xiphoid process, carries the line: “I can swive four times a night; but thee once in four years I cannot occupye” (xi 98). Eric Partridge cited in 1937 the naughty title of the Queen of Swiveland for Venus. However, the word was never as taboo as fuck, being included in the dictionaries of Nathaniel Bailey (1730), Francis Grose (1785), and the great Oxford English Dictionary (1884–1928). But during the nineteenth cen tury its currency started to peter out, ending with this piece of quasi-medical Victorian advice: “Don’t bathe on a full stomach, nor swive” (1898). Throughout its history the term stayed semantically stable and did not develop related idioms such as swive about or swive off! Sard, as has been mentioned, is an ancient word found in formal contexts in Anglo Saxon, such as the translation of St. Matthew 5:27 (“Do not commit adultery”) in the Lindisfarne Gospels as: “Ne ser u o res mones wif. A late medieval extract from the play Hyckescorner (1510) runs: “he japed my wife and made me cuckold” (i 171). A pointed comment on the word’s semantic change was made by George Puttenham in the Arte of English Poesie (1589): “Such wordes as may be drawen to a foule and unshamefast sense, as one that should say to a young woman, ‘I pray you let me jape with you, which is indeed no more than let me sport with you’. The sexual sense of occupy provides an even stronger example of how one meaning can affect the general currency of a word. The primary sense of “to take possession of; take for one’s own use or seize” is recorded from about 1380. The contemporary dramatist Ben Jonson noted in his Discoveries (1637): “Many, out of their own obscene Apprehensions, refuse proper and fit words, as occupie, nature, and the like. In common with other word fields dealing with the genitalia and excretion, the taboo has generated a great number of euphemisms, as well as a division of registers between the coarser native words and classical terms. The field contains a huge variety of slang terms, like modern screw, shag, hump, and bonk, several of them of surprising duration. Thus the copulatory sense of screw is first recorded in the New Canting Dictionary (1725), but then seemingly dropped out of usage until it was revived about 1937. Grose also includes hump, noting that it was “once a fashionable word for copulation. Jonathon Green’s Slang Thesaurus (2nd edition, 1999) has approximately two hundred such terms. In many ways the division of registers shows the split between the polarities of the mys tical and the grossly physical, with the preponderance on the latter. Walt Whitman’s phrase “the divine work of fatherhood” is a rare example of the first mode. The dysphemisms (which allude to the physicality of the act with gross directness) are far more numerous, including the current poke, stuff, screw, preceded by making the beast with two backs (notably used in Othello I i 116). See also: Comstockery; Frig, Frigging; Fuck; Lady Chatterley’s Lover; Oxford English Dictionary. Cursing in America: A Psycholinguistic Study of Dirty Language in the Courts, in the Movies, in the Schoolyards and on the Streets. Today, however, the social value of courage is modified by notions of political or diplomatic skills in avoiding confrontation. As the entry for the Anglo-Saxon period shows, the value of absolute loyalty to the clan and to the chief was celebrated, both in battle poems and those poignantly depicting the life of disgraced exiles. The primary term in the ancient language for “cow ardly” was earg, which had the subsidiary meanings of “evil, wretched, vile. Interestingly derived from Old French coart, ultimately Latin cauda, “a tail,” the base meaning alludes, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, to the habit of an animal “turning tail” in fright. It was previously a highly emotive and provocative term that could be grounds for a duel. The allusion to the white liver derives from a whole series of terms in medieval physiog nomy explaining courage and cowardice as having physical origins. Specifically it was be lieved that the liver was the seat of the passions, and that a liver lacking color indicated weakness or lack of courage.

A cell that converts the energy of light into by memory or constructed by imagination generic 2 mg tizanidine fast delivery muscle relaxant non-prescription. Thus the rods and cones in the eye convert the energy of light which visual induction strikes them into nerve impulses cheap tizanidine 2mg spasms posterior knee, which ulti n order 2 mg tizanidine otc muscle relaxant g 2011. The effect of one part of a visual scene mately result in the experience of seeing or the visual feld on other parts of it discount tizanidine 2 mg with amex spasms homeopathy right side. The capacity to remember what has been teristics of the target object and various dis seen in the form of virtual images in the tracter objects are varied to investigate effects mind. The game Find Visual-Motor Gestalt Test Waldo is a nonexperimental example of a n. The test is used as a screening instrument for brain damage in adults and for visuomotor priming developmental problems in children, as well n. The process of facilitating or inhibiting as occasionally for psychological disorders a motor action by presenting a visual image such as depression. The capacity to detect light and per immediately before picking up the glass will ceive objects refecting light. The idea that there is a life force which in turn may lead to generation of a neural cannot be explained in terms of physical impulse causing us to see light. In the rods this sciences such as physics and chemistry, usu chemical is known as rhodopsin; the different ally including the idea that the life force kinds in cone cells are called iodopsins. A photoreactive chemicals found in retinal the idea of libido in Freud’s psychology is rods, which changes shape when struck by a sometimes viewed as a form of vitalism, as photon of appropriate energy, which then is the teleological principle in Jung’s writ causes the rod to hyperpolarize, sending an ings. Vitalism is gradually being replaced in electrical impulse to the nerve and other cells academic thought by the idea of emergent to which it is connected. Rhodopsin bleaches properties in which new aspects emerge that out quickly at high ambient brightness levels are not necessarily inferable from the parts and is responsible for night vision. The idea that mental disorders and physi is the mechanism by which people speak and cal diseases are a result of the lack or oversup make other sounds. The amount of tension ply of specifc chemicals in the body and can on the folds regulates the tone of the sound be treated by supplying chemicals to bring produced. Thus it has been sug are amplifed by resonation in the cavities gested that vitamin C could cure the common of the chest, throat, mouth, nose, and sinus. The vocal cords (also vocal folds) are two used to predict success in a particular occu folds of fesh housed in the larynx and sur pation. Muscles in the larynx varied tests of the abilities assumed to be pull the vocal cords apart (abduct) during central to successful performance in the breathing, opening the glottis and allow occupation. During phonation vocational counseling (in the production of voiced sounds, such n. The process of assisting a person to fnd as vowels and voiced consonants), the vocal an appropriate job or career through testing, cords move together (adduct). The increased personal interviews, and discussions of the subglottal pressure forces air through the nature and qualifcations for particular jobs vocal cords, causing them to move apart. Any general or specifc curiosity, pref 125 Hz (cycles per second) in adult males, erence for, or concern with an area that is 200 Hz in females, 300 Hz in children; these found to be or deemed to be characteristic differences are linked to differences in the of persons who are successful in particular size of the larynx, the length and mass of occupations. Thus the Strong Vocational the vocal cords, and the length of the vocal Interest Blank scores persons on their simi tract. The result of the cyclical opening and larity in preferences, interests, and activities closing of the vocal folds is voicing, or pho to persons who are successful in a variety of nation, in speech production or singing: a careers. A graphic representation of the tones and lips which stretch across the larynx whose cadences of human speech, which has been opening is called the glottis. The vibration of used in attempts to identify individuals but 574 volley theory of hearing vowel has not generally been found to be satisfacto answer to any question its owner asked of it rily reliable. It was eventually assumed by scien auditory nerve tract responds to every sound tists that the owner was unconsciously giving stimulus but that some group of cells responds Hans subtle cues. This story has been used to each stimulus so that in a succession of ever since that time as an example of reach sound waves some respond to the frst wave, ing false conclusions by overlooking impor some to the second, some to the third, up tant variables in research. Nerve cells can of items, the items that are most distinctive respond at most between 500 and 100 times will be best remembered. As an instance, if a per second, and yet we can hear sounds at up list of words is printed in black ink except for to about 20,000 cycles per second because of one word printed in blue ink, the word in blue the partial response pattern of auditory nerve ink is more likely to be remembered. The death of a person after a curse by a voo volume color doo priest or sorcerer.

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It seemed that they were trying to tizanidine 2 mg cheap muscle relaxant cyclobenzaprine dosage vocally “visualize” and practice the game-play buy tizanidine 2 mg fast delivery knee spasms at night. After leaving the room tizanidine 2mg with mastercard muscle relaxant in india, some players kept on uttering ‘ssss’ and laughing even outside the context of the game: the production of non-speech vocalizations seemed enjoyable in its own right cheap tizanidine 2 mg with mastercard muscle relaxant methocarbamol addiction. Blowtter: a Voice-Controlled Plotter Blowtter, the second practical project submitted for the Ph. The mic-board is a small square board that consists of four microphones, one on each of its four corners (Figure 52). Blowing into the top microphone moves the head of the plotter up, blowing into the bottom microphone moves it down, blowing into the left microphone moves it left and blowing into the right microphone moves it right – as if pushing it. Blowing is used as an input in order to facilitate the directness and continuity required for drawing which is not easily achieved by using a spoken command repetitively such as saying “move. The advantage of this technique compared with traditional approach of saying ‘Volume up twenty’ or something is that the user can continuously observe the immediate feedback during the interaction. The advantage of using blowing lies in the possibility of targeting it with one microphone without interference through nearby microphones. The act of blowing itself tends to involve unconsciously placing the mouth very closely to the blown-into object (Figure 53). Thus, each microphone, rather than sharing airborne sounds with the other microphones, actually generates its own (therefore local) sound by acting like the mouth-hole on a flute. Blowing is perceptually voiceless despite the fact that the microphones may detect it and the computer may measure its voice characteristics. Unlike voiced sounds which involve the vibration of the vocal folds while being generated, blowing and other unvoiced sounds only involve air passing through the larynx without causing the vocal folds to vibrate. Furthermore, the range of amplitude values that voiced sounds can produce is wider and louder than the range of amplitude values generated by blowing. This fact is exploited in specifying a higher threshold for speech than for blowing as will be explained in detail later. Figure 51: Blowtter: a voice-controlled plotter that allows a perhaps disabled user to blow into a mic-board in order to draw. By using the Xtra to measure and compare the different volume levels at each microphone, the software was enabled to recognize which microphone of the four the user is blowing into. The microphone at which the maximum amplitude is detected determines the direction for moving the pen. To avoid the plotting head reacting to any voice input other than blowing, an amplitude threshold is specified. When a volume above the threshold is detected, the software assumes that the user is speaking rather than blowing and the speech recognition Xtra, Chant, is activated. Furthermore, to avoid the plotter head reacting to soft ambient noises, another lower threshold is specified. When a pitch (here identified as the most powerful part of the frequency spectrum) above the pitch threshold and a volume below the volume threshold are detected, the software assumes that the user is blowing because blowing is high-pitched in comparison to most speech sounds. Chant Speech Kit, a speech-recognition Xtra for Director, is used to recognize the commands spoken by the user. For Blowtter, however, only the command list is enabled and customized to include only the commands that control the plotter. The dictation vocabulary is disabled, hence detection errors are minimized by programming the Xtra to capture only the commands in the customized command list. Direct Communication Xtra allows Director to communicate with an external device either through the serial or the parallel port. Blowing as a paralinguistic activity has also been utilized innovatively in a very few interactive works. In both cases, users probably believe that the force of the air-stream is the direct determining factor, whereas it is really the volume of the sound created by blowing on the microphone. Blowing “Windows” by Matsumura at the Royal College of Art, London, also employs blowing [Matsumura, 2005]. It allows the user to blow into one end of a hose of which the other end is directed towards a computer screen in order to control, move, and rearrange desktop icons (Figure 56). The duct contains a wireless microphone that detects the blowing and measures its intensity.

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The behaviour is not severe enough to order tizanidine 2mg otc muscle relaxant depression require hospitalisation or immediate intervention order 2mg tizanidine otc spasms hands fingers. Sometimes purchase tizanidine 2mg line muscle relaxant machine, individual with this disorder is actually more likely to generic 2mg tizanidine muscle relaxant breastfeeding experience some impairment in interpersonal dealings as people may consider them unreliable because of their mood changes. The problem of diagnosis becomes complicated among children because the symptoms of bipolar disorder may co-exist with already present disorders like conduct disorder, hyperactivity, attention deficit disorder (Shapiro 2005). Lot of research needs to be done in area of diagnostics for judging bipolar disorder in children. Kindling is a phenomena indicating that individuals who have experienced manic episode are at greater risks of experiencing another episode, even if they are taking medicines for controlling it. Manic depressive episode may occur just before or so on after major depressive episode. The frequency of manic depressive episode is on an average 4 episodes within a span of decade, for those who do not under go any treatment or medication. Majority of women are likely to become rapid cyclers, Hyperthyroidism, use of antidepressant drugs increase the chances of reducing the time gap between episodes. But one forth of them may continue to feel depressed and have difficulty in dealing with people at home or at work, problems are especially likely for individuals who struggle with unpredictable mood changes that occur in rapid cycles because other people consider them to be moody and unreliable. Onset and duration: the average onset of this disorder in between 19 to 22 years. Researchers have identified biological, psychological and social factors that seem to play an important role in the etiology of mood disorders. Research has shown that the first degree relatives of people with major depression are twice likely to develop disorder as compared with individuals from general population (Sullivan, Neak & Kender 2006) the risk in higher for the first degree relatives of children of depressed individuals (Lieb et al 2002) the studies of three generation of children, parents and grandparents, show that this disorder tend to run in families. If major depressive disorder is present in parents and grandparents, children are more likely to show symptoms of psychopathology. A child with anxiety disorder who comes from family with major depressive disorder in more likely to suffer from depressive disorder later in life. They found that the heritability of 31 to 42 percent, meaning among 100 individuals who have close relative who has disorder out of them approximately 30 to 40 of them have a major likelihood of having major depression (Sullivan, Neals & Kendler 2009). The available evidence does not clearly indicate the role of specific genes (De Paule 2004). In a study of over 1000 pairs of opposite sex twins who were interviewed 2 years apart, to study the effect of receiving social support on the development of depressive symptoms. It was found that both men and women of twin pairs had more chances of developing major depression when social support is very low, as compared with men and women who had more social support. The study indicated that even powerful genetic risk factors can be influenced by environmental conditions. Biochemical factors – the biological theories emphasise the altered neurotransmitter functioning as a cause of mood disorder. The above two hypothesis regarding the role of deficient neurotransmitter substances in mood disorder, is called as Monoamine Depletion Model. All the antidepressants currently used attempt to increase the availability of these neurotransmitter substances. Studies have pointed out the relationship between hormonal activity and depression. The research findings in the area of genetics imply the role of biological factors in the causation and symptomatology of mood disorder. The later psychodynamic theories emphasised the inner psychic processes as the basis of mood disorders. As adults they form relationship where they overvalue the support of their partners. End of such relationship may make depressed person experience feelings of inadequacy and loss. Depressed people withdraw from life because they do not have an incentive to remain active. Cognitive approaches propose that serious mood changes can result from events in our lives or from our perception of events. Cognitive perspectives suggest that people experience depression as their earlier experiences sensitise, them to react in certain ways to stressful events. People react to stressful events, with a set of thoughts involving negative view of self, world and future. Beck in 1967, described this negative view of self world and future as cognitive triad, he further proposed that if this view is activated once, it continues further in a cyclical manner.

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